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EUROPE-ORIENTED EDUCATION TECHNOLOGIES IN HSPIFL
Філологія - Вісник Донецького інституту соціальної освіти

G. V. Byshuk (Horlivka)

The article is devoted the analysis of innovative technologies of teaching a foreign language in Gorlovskom State institute of foreign ЯзыковГПИИЯ. Integration of Перцептивных and Рецептивных types of vocal activity Is directed not only on acquisition of philological knowledges a student about a language, but, above all Things, on the use of these knowledges in communication.

Key words: Перцептивные and Рецептивные types of vocal activity, emotional and intellectual factor, are In teaching a foreign language

This paper is concerned with innovation tech - accumulation system compatible with the ECTS was

Nologies in teaching students receptive and productive introduced in Ukrainian higher educational institutions.

Skills. Language skills of listening, reading, speaking These years became the time when a 5 year diploma

And writing are generally integrated rather than programme was split into two blocks – one of four

Occurring in isolation. Moreover, they are aimed at years to form the Bachelor degree and one of one

Acquiring knowledge about the language in order to year to form the Masters. However this approach

Use it in real life. does not offer students a self contained study

The Bologna Process has been the driving force programme for either degree programme. This means

Of Higher Education reform in Europe since its that students are unlikely to have the skills necessary

Beginnings in 1999. Although the Bologna Process is to enter the labour market after the Bachelor part.

An intergovernmental, legally non binding, essentially In addition, it makes it much more difficult for

Political process, its impact has been phenomenal. students to change subjects for their Masters degree.

With currently 46 signatory countries the main aim is The positive changes can be seen in the promotion

To establish a European Area of Higher education by of effective quality assurance systems.

The year 2010, a frame that is expected to facilitate Taking into the consideration the quality of

Closer cooperation between higher education assurance system that should include:

Institutions, make easy student and stuff mobility. The – evaluations of programmes including internal

Basic aims of the Bologna Declaration may be assessment, external review, participation of

Summarised as follows: students and the publications of results;

– adoption of a system of easily readable and – a system of accreditation, certification or

Comparable degrees; comparable procedures;

– adoption of a system essentially based on three – international participation, cooperation and

Main cycles: Undergraduate Bachelor degrees, networking

Masters degree, doctorates; Horlivka State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign

– establishment of a system of credits – such as Languages (HSPIFL) as a part of Ukrainian higher

In the European Credit Transfer System educational system is not standing aside the process

(ECTS) – as a proper means of promoting the of joining the European Area of Higher education.

Most widespread student mobility; The English Grammar Chair has piloted a new English

– promotion of mobility by overcoming obstacles coursebook Inside Out (Macmillan) for the students

To the effective exercise of free movement; in their first, second and third year of studying who

– promotion of European cooperation in quality are doing their degree at HSPIFL.

Assurance with a view to developing Background

Comparable criteria and methodologies; Having analysed a number of English language

– promotion of the necessary European teaching (ELT) coursebooks available (and recommended

Dimension in higher education. by the Ministry of Education) we found out that none of

Ukraine as a Bologna signatory country has them meet the challenges of the 21st century:

Started the reforms in higher education and in this – none of the coursebooks are known what

Respect Common European of References for European level they correspond to;

Languages: learning, teaching, assessment [1]. serves – none of them focus on receptive or perceptive

As the basis for these reforms. In 2006-2007 to skills in accordance with the Common

Enhance the flexibility of national higher education European of References for Languages:

System and to promote mobility the credit learning, teaching, assessment [1].


В І С Н И К Донецького інституту соціальної освіти


Why Inside Out?

Before making Inside Out A choice we had to analyse all ELT coursebooks on the Ukrainian book market. Some of the coursebooks started with Upper Intermediate level or were up to Upper Intermediate level, others didn't provide sufficient hours teaching material or were for children (the topics weren't concerned with young adults or adults).

Unlike other courses each level of Inside Out Includes a Student's Book, a Teacher's Book, a Wo rkbook, Class Cassettes (or CDs), a Wo rkbook Cassette (or CD), a Grammar Companion workbook and a photocopiable Resource Pack. The course also includes a Vi deo and a Video Teacher's Book.

The Student's Book Is a basic component in the Inside Out Set. It covers about 180 hours of classroom teaching and contains a well balanced and sufficient number of Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing activities. It is made up of 12 main units (1-6 and 8-13) and two review units (7 and 14). The units do not follow a rigid template: the flow of each one comes from the texts, tasks and language points in it. The book includes all the tapescripts, a list of verb structures, information on different types of phrasal verbs, nouns, a glossary of grammatical terminology, a guide to the phonemic alphabet, and a list of irregular verbs. Class Cassettes (2) (or CDs) have all the listening materials from the Student's Book.

All the strategies employed in Inside Out Aim to promote learning by focusing on personal engagement, both intellectual and emotional. At the heart of the book is the belief that the most effective conditions for language learning come about when students engage in activities on a personal level rather than "going through the motions". Engagement can be triggered by anything from understanding and smiling at a cartoon to talking at length to a partner about an important event in your life. Each unit is built around a set of related topics. These have been selected to be meaningful to most students - they are subjects about which most people have something to say:

If the bride and the groom are in love then it doesn't Really matter what the parents think [3, p. 25],

Yo u'll never hear the women say: "I've just killed that enormous spider in the bathroom" [3, p. 112],

What rituals do you perform before sitting down to start working or studying? [4, p. 43],

What's the biggest craze among pre-teens in your country at the moment? [4, p. 99],

What kind of food do you associate with the end of a hard day? [5, p. 14],

Have you got a TV games console? If you have how Many hours do you spend playing on it? [5 , p. 73].

The course covers the main grammar areas you would expect in any intermediate, upper intermediate or advanced course book and appropriate to the needs of students. To provide appropriate grammar study, Inside Out Includes "Close up" sections. These follow a three stage approach: language analysis, practice personalisation.

The language analysis stage promotes "noticing" of language features and usage. Working with example sentences and text from the book, students articulate and organise what they know, and incorporate new information. This stage works both as individual study or as pair/groupwork. In general, the authors recommend pair/groupwork as this provides a forum for students to exchange and test out ideas before presenting them in the more intimidating arena of the whole class. Unlike other books which use the "guided discovery" approach to grammar, there are no gap fills and multiple choice questions activities in the book. Research showed that most students are unenthusiastic about using these techniques to study grammar. This may be because they associate them with practice and testing rather than learning. Instead, questions and discussion points are provided.

In the practice activities students manipulate or select structures, testing their theories. As they do this, they also become more comfortable with the grammar point. The sentences in this section are designed to be realistic rather than relying on invented scenarios about imaginary people. Many can be applied to the students' own lives, and this facilitates the next stage.

The personalisation stage is not a conventional free practice where students, for example, take part in a role play which "requires" the target structure. V e ry few situations in real life actually require a particular structure. Furthermore, when students are faced with a situation without time to prepare, they naturally decide to rely on what they know rather than what they studied half an hour ago. For these reasons, personalisation is based on actual examples of the target structure. Students apply these examples to their own lives, opinions and feelings. Sentences from the practice stage are often recycled for the personalisation. For example:

Write five sentences about yourself using the time expressions "since", "for" – four that are true and one lie [4, p. 26],

Write your own "things to do" list according to the matrix above. Use it to talk to your partner about your priorities for today, this week, this month [4, p. 88].

All the Close up sections are followed by Language reference boxes, which give accurate, clear


ФІЛОЛОГІЯ. ЖУРНАЛІСТИКА Том V. 5/2009


Explanations backed up with examples. These appear in the unit, right where they're needed, rather than being tucked away at the back of the book.

Inside Out Is filled with speaking tasks. Their main purpose is to develop fluency. While they are not intended principally as grammar practice, they are linked to the topics, lexis and grammar in the unit so as to include opportunities for students to turn input into output. The tasks do not require complicated classroom configurations. They are easy to set up and enjoyable to use. Most of them encourage the students to talk about things that actually matter to them, rather than playing roles or exchanging invented information. Personalised, authentic tasks challenge and engage students, and this encourages linguistic "risk taking": Can I use this word here? Is this how this structure works? Research into second language acquisition suggests that when students take risks they are experimenting, testing theories about how the language works. This is an essential part of language learning.

There are also extended speaking tasks, where students tackle a longer piece of discourse. In the book they're called "anecdotes". They are based on personal issues, for instance, memories, stories, people you know. When you learn a musical instrument, you can't spend all your time playing scales and exercises: you also need to learn whole pieces in order to see how music is organised. Anecdotes give students a chance to get to grips with how discourse is organised. The anecdotes are set up through evocative questions. Students read or listen to a planned series of questions and choose what specifically they will talk about; shyer students can avoid matters they feel are too personal. As they prepare for the anecdote, students also think about the language they will need. This student preparation is a key stage and should not be rushed. Learners who plan for tasks attempt more ambitious and complex language, hesitate less and make fewer basic errors.

The simplest way to prepare students for an anecdote is to ask them to read the list of questions in the book and decide which they want to talk about. This could be done during class time or as homework preparation for the following lesson. The questions have check boxes so that students can tick the ones they are interested in. The teacher should ask them to think about the language they will need, encourage them to use dictionaries and make notes, but not to write out what they will actually say for a minute in class. Finally, the students may be put into pairs to exchange anecdotes.

Teachers may also want to ask students to provide a written account of the anecdote as a follow-up activity. This allows those students who are slightly more reticent when speaking to push themselves a little further and develop confidence in their a bilities, as well as encouraging students to review any new structure or lexical items that have come up in the unit. It also provides practice in writing to prepare for speaking, something students will probably have to do more of as their English advances.

It's quite reasonable to consider going back to anecdotes and repeating them in later classes. Let the students know that you are going to do this. This will reassure them that you are doing it on purpose, but more importantly, it will mean that they will be more motivated to dedicate some time and thought to preparation. When you repeat the task, mix the class so that each student works with a new partner, i. e. one who has not previously heard the anecdote.

Another approach is is to reduce the time allowed to deliver the anecdote each time it is repeated: in the first instance the student has five minutes; for the second telling they have four minutes; and the third three minutes [6]. Repeating complex tasks reflects real interactions. We all have our set pieces: jokes, stories. And we tend to refine and improve them as we retell them. The research has shown that giving this opportunity students become more adventurous and at the same time more precise in the language they use. Yo u can also use the anecdotes to test oral proficiency and thereby add a speaking component to accompany the tests in the Teacher's Book.

The book contains realistic reading. In theory, no matter how difficult a text may be, the task that accompanies it can be designed to be within the competence of the student, i. e. "grade the task not the text". But this approach doesn't always work: however easy the task may be, students are quickly disillusioned by an incomprehensible text. At the other extreme, many of the texts that are in ELT coursebooks have obviously been written merely in order to include examples of a given grammatical structure. Texts like this are often boring to read and unconvincing as discourse. The solution adopted in Inside Out Has been to base all reading texts on authentic modern sources, including magazines, novels, newspapers, websites and personal communications. Where necessary, the source texts have been edited and graded so as to make them challenging without being impossible. The texts have been selected not only for their language content but also for their interest and their appropriacy to the students who will use this course.


В І С Н И К Донецького інституту соціальної освіти


The listenings include texts specially written for language learning, improvisations in the studio and authentic recordings. There are dialogues, conversations, monologues and real pop songs by the original artists. There is a variety of English accents – British, American, Irish, Australian, Scots – and some examples of non-native speakers. The tasks are designed to develop real life listening skills.

Selecting vocabulary to teach becomes more difficult at higher levels. It is relatively easy to predict the needs of beginners: "hello", "please", "thank you". As learners progress to higher levels, their vocabulary needs come to depend more and more on their individual situations: jobs, courses of study, exams, personal interests, etc. In Inside Out Vocabulary is selected to be generally useful and appropriate to the typical student, who is likely to be 17-35 years old and relatively well educated. It is always presented in context and is related to the themes and topics in the unit. Lexis is first of all highlighted in exercises which draw attention to it, then recycled in back up exercises. The Wo rkbook provides further recycling, as do the photocopiable tests in the Teacher's Book. The exercises encourage students to deal with lexis as part of a system, rather than as a list of discrete words through tasks focusing on collocation, connotation and social register.

The coursebook contains seven structured writing tasks which offer the students opportunities to get to grips with a variety of formats: narrative, discursive, formal and informal letters, CVs and web pages. This is backed up by a self-contained writing course which runs through the Workbook.

The Workbook Provides revision of all the main points in the Student's Book, plus extra listening practice, pronunciation work and a complete self-contained writing course.

The Workbook Cassette (or CD) Contains listening practice and pronunciation work, plus recordings of some of the reading texts.

The Grammar Companion Workbook Has a set of gramma r activities to each unit in the Student's book.

In The Teacher's Book You'll find step-by-step notes and answers for every exercise. These include closed-book activities to warm the class up before beginning a new set of work. The tapescripts are included in the body of the notes for easy reference. For every one of the main units there is a one-page photocopiable lest, for use as soon as you finish the unit or a couple of weeks later. There are longer mid-course and end-of-course tests which go with the two review units (7 and 14).

At the beginning of the book there is a Zero unit. This consists of two parts. The first part is a quiz about the Student's Book to help familiarise students

With it: how language is described, the kinds of activities they will do, how the list of contents works, what they can find at the back of the book. The second part is a Student profile. It aims to discover something about each student's language learning history and reasons for studying English, for example, for an exam, for academic studies, for work reasons, out of personal interest, etc. Students can fill the form out individually or by interviewing each other in pairs. The Student profile is similar to needs analysis, which has been used in business English for many years. But it is not only business students who have reasons for learning. General English students also have needs and wants. Knowing about them will help you to plan lessons, to use the coursebook more appropriately and to get to know your students better.

The Resource Pack Contains thirty-seven photocopiable worksheets designed to supplement or extend the Student's Book. The worksheets are based on the themes and grammar points in the book and are linked to the book unit by unit. They were written for this project by eleven different ELT teachers. They are very varied, but one thing they have in common is that they provide practical, useful classroom practice. There are full teaching notes for every worksheet.

The video Contains one sequence for each unit of the Student's Book. Each sequence links to exercises and pages in the Student's Book, either using tapescripts to create a visual version of listening exercises, or taking a topic and developing it more fully.

The Video Teacher's Book Provides photo-copiable worksheets for the video sequences, as well as full keys and tapescripts.

Inside Out – all good then?

It has been claimed that Inside Out Is aimed to promote English learning only and contains no tasks which focus on teacher training strategies, so it can't be used as a ELT coursebook for training teachers. The main argument against this idea is that any time a student interacts with his partner or works in small groups he learns discourse management, coherence and cohesion, interactive strategies to maintain or repair communication, sensitivity to the norms of turn-taking – the strategies the student will use while interacting with his class.

Another controversial issue is that the book lacks the structural approach to grammar. For that purpose one should consult a good English Grammar book because the aim of any ELT coursebook to have an integrated syllabus – one which combines certain grammatical structures with the functions thought most useful for students at a particular level. Let's say "at beginner level the present simple is introduced with the functions of describing facts, at intermediate level the same verb form can be introduced with a


ФІЛОЛОГІЯ. ЖУРНАЛІСТИКА Том V. 5/2009

Different use – timetabled events in the future, then Summing up

At advanced level we may want to introduce the use The future of the Bologna Process in Ukraine is

Of the present simple to tell stories and anecdotes likely to see further effort put into quality assurance

About past events" [2, p. 126-127]. issues as well as renewed focus on the actions

What really seems a problem for us is our students streams relating to promoting life long learning and

Take a test or exam in English based on Cambridge creating a European dimension in higher education.

Exams – PET for students in their first year, FCE for In that regard the Ukrainian higher education and

Students in their second and third year of studying though Horlivka State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign

Inside Out Isn't a format coursebook (the one that Languages as a part of it is turning to the active

Prepares for Cambridge PET, FCE, CAE and CPE preparation of students for the active citizenship with

Exams). So as the way out we have to combine Inside The necessary skills to make them employable across

Out A nd English exam tests within the course of studies. Europe and beyond.

References

1. Common European of References for Languages: 4. Jones C. Inside Out / Ceri Jones, Tania Bastow. – learning, teaching, assessment. // http: // Cambridge: Macmillan Education, 2006. – Www. coe. int / t / clg 4 / linguistic / CADRE_EN. asp. 160 p.

2. Gover R. Teaching Practice / Roger Gover, 5. Kay S. Inside Out / Sue Kay, V o ugh Jones. – Diane Phillips, Steve Wa lters. – Cambridge: Cambridge: Macmillan Education, 2006. – Macmillan Education, 2007. – 432 p. 172 p.

3. Hird J. Inside Out / Jones Hird, John Marks. – 6. Scrivener J. Learning teaching / John Scrivener. – Cambridge: Macmillan Education, 2006. – 158 p. Cambridge: Macmillan Education, 2007. – 216 p.

Бышук Г. В.

ЕВРОПЕЙСКИЙ ВЫБОР ОБУЧЕНИЯ ИНОСТРАННОМУ ЯЗЫКУ В ГОРЛОВСКОМ ГОСУДАР­СТВЕННОМ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКОМ ИНСТИТУТЕ ИНОСТРАННЫХ ЯЗЫКОВ

Статья посвящена анализу инновационных технологий обучения иностранному языку в Горловском государственном институте иностранных языков. Интеграция перцептивных и рецептивных видов речевой деятельности направлена не только на приобретение студентом филологических знаний о языке, но, в первую очередь, на использование этих знаний в коммуникации.

Ключевые слова: Перцептивные и рецептивные виды речевой деятельности, эмоциональный и ин­Теллектуальный фактор в обучении иностранному языку.

Бишук Г. В.

ЕВРОПЕЙСЬКИЙ ВИБIР НАВЧАННЯ IНОЗЕМНОЇ МОВИ У ГОРЛІВСЬКОМУ ДЕРЖАВНО­МУ ПЕДАГОГІЧНОМУ ІНСТИТУТІ ІНОЗЕМНИХ МОВ

Стаття присвячена аналiзу iнновацiйних технологiй навчання iноземноi мови у Горлівському державно­му педагогічному інституті іноземних мов. Iнтеграцiя перцептивних та рецептивних видiв мовленнєвої дiяльностi нацiлена не тiльки на отримання студентом фiлологiчних знань про мову, але й, у першу чергу, на використанняцих знань у комунiкацїi.

Ключовi слова: Перцептивнi та рецептивнi Види мовленнєвої дiяльностi, емоцiйний Та iнтелектуальний Чинник У навчаннi iноземної Мови.

Надійшла До Редакції 12 жовтня 2009 Року